Symmetric integration of the 1+1 Teukolsky equation on hyperboloidal foliations of Kerr spacetimes


This work outlines a fast, high-precision time-domain solver for scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations on hyperboloidal foliations of Kerr space-times. Time-domain Teukolsky equation solvers have typically used explicit methods, which numerically violate Noether symmetries and are Courant-limited. These restrictions can limit the performance of explicit schemes when simulating long-time extreme mass ratio inspirals, expected to appear in LISA band for 2-5 years. We thus explore symmetric (exponential, Padé or Hermite) integrators, which are unconditionally stable and known to preserve certain Noether symmetries and phase-space volume. For linear hyperbolic equations, these implicit integrators can be cast in explicit form, making them well-suited for long-time evolution of black hole perturbations. The 1+1 modal Teukolsky equation is discretized in space using polynomial collocation methods and reduced to a linear system of ordinary differential equations, coupled via mode-coupling arrays and discretized (matrix) differential operators. We use a matricization technique to cast the mode-coupled system in a form amenable to a method-of-lines framework, which simplifies numerical implementation and enables efficient parallelization on CPU and GPU architectures. We test our numerical code by studying late-time tails of Kerr spacetime perturbations in the sub-extremal and extremal cases.